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New moms and dads often wonder what to expect next and how to know if their baby’s development is on target. Instead of focusing too much on developmental milestones, however, it’s important to remember that babies all develop at their own pace. There’s a fairly wide “window” for when it is normal for a baby to reach a particular developmental stage.
“If your baby reaches one milestone sooner, she may reach another one later, because she’s so busy perfecting the other skill,” says Jennifer Shu, MD, pediatrician and co-author of Heading Home with Your Newborn.
Some babies may say their first word at eight months, while others don’t talk until a little after the one-year mark. And walking may start anytime between nine and 18 months.
Keeping those kinds of variations in mind, here’s what your baby may be doing during each three-month stage of the first year.
Baby Development: One to Three Months
During this first development stage, babies’ bodies and brains are learning to live in the outside world. Between birth and three months, your baby may start to:
• Smile. Early on, it will be just to herself. But within three months, she’ll be smiling in response to your smiles and trying to get you to smile back at her.
• Raise her head and chest when on her tummy.
• Track objects with her eyes.
• Open and shut her hands and bring hands to her mouth.
• Grip objects in her hands.
• Take swipes at or reach for dangling objects, though she usually won’t be able to get them yet.
Baby Development: Four to Six Months
During these months, babies are really learning to reach out and manipulate the world around them. They’re mastering the use of those amazing tools, their hands. And they’re discovering their voices. From 4 to 6 months old, your baby will probably:
• Roll over from front to back or back to front. Front-to-back usually comes first.
• Babble, making sounds that can sound like real language.
• Reach out for and grab objects (watch out for your hair), and manipulate toys and other objects with her hands.
• Sit up with support.
Baby Development: Seven to Nine Months
During the second half of this year, your little one becomes a baby on the go. After learning that he can get somewhere by rolling over, he’ll spend the next few months figuring out how to move forward or backward. If you haven’t baby-proofed yet, better get on it!
• During this time period, your baby may:
• Start to crawl. This can include scooting (propelling around on his bottom) or “army crawling” (dragging himself on his tummy by arms and legs), as well as standard crawling on hands and knees. Some babies never crawl, moving directly to from scooting to walking.
• Sit without support.
• Respond to familiar words like his name. He may also respond to “no” by briefly stopping and looking at you.
• Clap and play games such as patty-cake and peekaboo.
• Learn to pull up to a standing position.
Baby Development: 10 to 12 Months
The last development stage in baby’s first year is quite a transition. She isn’t an infant anymore, and she might look and act more like a toddler. But she’s still a baby in many ways. She’s learning to:
• Begin feeding herself. Babies at this developmental stage master the “pincer grasp“ -- meaning they can hold small objects such as O-shaped cereal between their thumb and forefinger.
• Cruise, or move around the room on her feet while holding onto the furniture.
• Say one or two words. The average is about three spoken words by the first birthday, but the range on this is enormous.
• Point at objects she wants in order to get your attention.
• Begin “pretend play” by copying you or using objects correctly, such as pretending to talk on the phone.
• Take her first steps. This usually happens right around one year, but it can vary greatly.
Your Baby’s Development: When to Talk to a Pediatrician
What should you do if you think your baby is not meeting growth or development milestones when he should? First, says Shu, trust your instincts. “If you really feel like something’s wrong, then talk to your doctor about it because if there is a problem, we want to catch it as soon as we can," she says. "Early intervention is best, and you know your child better than anyone.”
Remember, however, that it is not exactly when your baby sits up by himself or says his first words that is important; it’s that he’s moving forward in his development. “Don’t look at the time as much as the progression, and see that your child is changing and growing,” says Shu. “It’s not a race. Nobody’s going to ask on a college application when your child first walked or said ‘da-da.’”
Your Child’s Development -- Month by Month
This table shows common developmental milestones that babies reach each month during their first year, in four major categories. Keep in mind that all babies are different and every baby grows at his own pace. There's no precise time that most of these skills first appear. If your child hasn’t reached a milestone by the month it is listed on this chart, it is usually a perfectly normal variation in child development. Watch for progress, not deadlines.
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Moves head from side to side when on stomach
Stares at hands and fingers
Tracks movement with eyes
Holds head and neck up briefly while on tummy
Opens and closes hands
Begins to play with fingers
Reaches and grabs at objects
Grips objects in hands
Imitates you when you stick out your tongue
Pushes up on arms when lying on tummy
Grabs objects -- and gets them!
Laughs out loud
Enjoys play and may cry when playing stops
Begins to roll over in one or the other direction
Is learning to transfer objects from one hand to the other
Blows “raspberries” (spit bubbles)
Reaches for mommy or daddy and cries if they’re out of sight
Rolls over both ways
Uses hands to “rake” small objects
Recognizes familiar faces --caregivers and friends as well as family
Moves around --is starting to crawl, scoot, or “army crawl”
Is learning to use thumb and fingers
Babbles in a more complex way
Responds to other people’s expressions of emotion
Sits well without support
Begins to clap hands
Responds to familiar words, looks when you say his name
Plays interactive games like peekaboo
May try to climb/crawl up stairs
Uses the pincer grasp
Learns object permanence -- that something exists even if he can’t see it
Is at the height of stranger anxiety
Pulls up to stand
Stacks and sorts toys
Waves bye-bye and/or lifts up arms to communicate “up”
Learns to understand cause and effect (“I cry, Mommy comes”)
Cruises, using furniture
Turns pages while you read
Says “mama” or “dada” for either parent
Uses mealtime games (dropping spoon, pushing food away) to test your reaction; expresses food preferences
Stands unaided and may take first steps
Helps while getting dressed (pushes hands into sleeves)
Says an average of 2-3 words (often “mama” and “dada”)
Plays imitative games such as pretending to use the phone
By Gina Shaw
Tuesday, January 18, 2011
Do breasts need time to refill?
Many people mistakenly think of a mother's milk supply as being like "flesh-covered bottles" that are completely emptied and then need time to refill before baby nurses again.This is simply not how we understand milk production to function.
First of all, milk is being produced at all times, so the breast is never empty. Research has shown that babies do not take all the milk available from the breast - the amount that baby drinks depends upon his appetite. The amount of milk removed from the breast varies from feed to feed, but averages around 75-80% of the available milk.
Research also tells us that the emptier the breast, the faster the breast makes milk. So when baby removes a large percentage of milk from the breast, milk production will speed up in response.
Waiting a set amount of time to nurse your baby (under the mistaken belief that breasts need time to "refill") is actually counterproductive. Consistently delaying nursing will lead to decreased milk supply over time because milk production slows when milk accumulates in the breast.
Another factor that affects milk production and breastfeeding management is mom’s . Storage capacity is the amount of milk that the breast can store between feedings. This can vary widely from mom to mom and also between breasts for the same mom. Storage capacity is not determined by breast size, although breast size can certainly limit the amount of milk that can be stored. Moms with largeor small storage capacities can produce plenty of milk for baby. A mother with a larger milk storage capacity may be able to go longer between feedings without impacting milk supply and baby's growth. A mother with a smaller storage capacity, however, will need to nurse baby more often to satisfy baby’s appetite and maintain milk supply since her breasts will become full (slowing production) more quickly.
Milk is being produced at all times, with speed of production depending upon how empty the breast is. Milk collects in mom's breasts between feedings, so the amount of milk stored in the breast between feedings is greater when more time has passed since the last feed. The more milk in the breast, the slower the speed of milk production.
, the key is to remove more milk from the breast and to do this quickly and frequently, so that less milk accumulates in the breast between feedings:
By RUTH LIEW
AROUND the age of 18 months, many toddlers have learned the power of the word “No” with authority.
They start showing signs of possessiveness. Parents will often hear the word “mine” or see tears rolling down their faces when they do not get their way.
After all, they are individuals who are learning to be independent. They need time to process the words they hear and understand the social behaviour they observe.
They have yet to learn social innuendos, and they get confused by what the adults say and do.
A teacher of a toddler noticed that a set of puzzles was returned to the wrong shelf. Instead of saying: “There is a set of puzzles on this shelf. It does not belong here. Let’s put it back to the place where it should be”, she remarked to the children: “Excuse me! Who put this puzzle in this shelf?”
The toddlers were oblivious to her concern. They are not able to relate to what she said.
Toddlers find questions perplexing. They cope better when you say exactly what you want them to do. They will have their questions when they become more aware of the happenings in their lives.
Here are seven things you should never say to your toddler:
Toddlers will cry when they are upset, hungry, angry, frustrated, sad. When they feel discomfort and unable to voice out, they will communicate their feelings and need the way they know how. Try saying “You are crying because you are ...” or “You need my help in ...” It is more comforting to a toddler when you are understanding and supportive rather than condescending.
Are you ready to go?
Toddlers do not keep time like adults do. They need time to prepare for making transitions. Prior to the scheduled time for leaving, inform your toddler what will happen in a few minutes time.
Help her to pack up to get ready. When it is time to leave, say to your child: “You are all ready to leave and go home. I am so glad we are all set.”
Why do you keep doing this? I have told you so many times ...
Toddlers are naturally impulsive. They do what they like and when they like it. They like repetition. They live for the present. Say: “Remember we keep our floors dry. Stop splashing water or you will have to leave this area. Wet floors are dangerous. You can get hurt when the floors are wet.” Always repeat what is important so that your toddler can do it correctly.
Share your toys with your friend.
The concept of ownership is clear to the child but not with sharing. They are still new to this social behaviour. Sharing for toddlers really mean “I am giving away to you.”
It is best to say to your toddler “Your friend likes to play with your toys. You can play with your toys and he can also play with your toys.
Stop jumping around and be quiet.
Toddlers are active. It is practically impossible to stop being their natural selves. When the noise level gets intolerable, work out a plan that your toddler is comfortable with like “You can jump for five minutes and after that, we can read a book together.”
You cannot take without asking first. Say “please”.
Manners are learned over time. As they are older, they will start to use more social graces. Toddlers fare better with positive statements such as “Smile and say “May I?”
You cannot touch this.
When you say this to your toddler, he receives a very different message. He hears only two words “touch this”. He will do exactly that and play with it. If there is something you do not want your toddler to get his hands on, remove it from his sight or distract him to do something else.
|Februari||*24.02.2011||Khamis||Tahun Baru Cina 03 & 04.02.2011|
|Mei||24.05.2011||Selasa||Pesta Menuai 30 & 31.05.2011|
|Jun||*23.06.2011||Khamis||Hari Gawai 1 & 2.06.2011|
|Ogos||24.08.2011||Rabu||Hari Raya Aidilfitri 30 & 31.08.2011|
|November||*24.11.2011||Khamis||Hari Raya Haji 06.11.2011|
|Disember||19.12.2011||Isnin||Hari Krismas 25.12.2011|